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Hướng dẫn học Từ vựng IELTS – Unit 15: The green revolution

Climate change and pollution

2.1  Complete the text with words from the box.

acid    biodiversity    contaminated environmental    erosion    exhaust

deforestation    ecosystems    emissions drought    fertilisers    greenhouse    waste

 

The advances made by humans have made us the dominant species on our planet. However, several eminent scientists are concerned that we have become too successful, that our way of life is putting an unprecedented strain on the Earth’s (1) ………..and threatening our future as a species. We are confronting (2) ………..problems that are more taxing than ever before some of them seemingly insoluble. Many of the Earth’s crises are chronic and inexorably linked. Pollution is an obvious example of this affecting our air, water and soil.

The air is polluted by (3) ………..produced by cars and industry. Through (4) ………..rain and (5)………..gases these same (6) ………..fumes can have a devastating impact on our climate. Climate change is arguably the greatest environmental challenge facing our planet with increased storms, floods, (7) ………..and species losses predicted. This will inevitably have a negative impact on (8) ………..and thus our ecosystem.

The soil is (9) ………..by factories and power stations which can leave heavy metals in the soil. Other human activities such as the overdevelopment of land and the clearing of trees also take their toll on the quality of our soil; (10) ……….. has been shown to cause soil (11) ……….. . Certain farming practices can also pollute the land though the use of chemical pesticides and (12) ……….. . This contamination in turn affects our rivers and waterways and damages life there. The chemicals enter our food chain, moving from fish to mammals to us. Our crops are also grown on land that is far from pristine. Affected species include the polar bear, so not even the Arctic is immune.

Reducing (13) ……….. and clearing up pollution costs money. Yet it is our quest for wealth that generates so much of the refuse. There is an urgent need to find a way of life that is less damaging to the Earth. This is not easy, but it is vital, because pollution is pervasive and often life-threatening.

Đáp án:

  1. ecosystems  
  2. environmental
  3. emissions
  4. acid
  5. greenhouse
  6. exhaust
  7. drought
  8. biodiversity
  9. contaminated
  10. deforestation
  11. erosion
  12. fertilizers 
  13. waste

 2.2   Match the words in bold with these synonyms.

1    unspoiled

2    crucial

3    unparalleled                                                                               

4    extremely harmful                                                                   

5    insurmountable                                                                        

6   unaffected ………..

7   omnipresent

8      unavoidably (x2)

9     persistent

10     challenging

Đáp án:

  1. pristine
  2. vital 
  3. unprecedented
  4. devastating
  5. insoluble
  6. immune
  7. pervasive  
  8. inexorably, inevitably
  9. chronic
  10. taxing

3   Consider how you would answer these questions.

1    What do you think is the greatest environmental threat we face today?

2   What can the government do to help protect the environment?

3   What can we as individuals do?

4.1    Use a dictionary to check the different forms of the words in the box as well as the prepositions used with them. Then complete the answers to the questions in 3 using the correct form of the word in brackets. You will need to add prepositions to the words that are underlined.

contaminate   danger   dispose   erode   pollute   recycle   risk   sustain   threat

 

 

1     I think our environment is 1………………, (threat) many different things. We have allowed too much 2    ……….. (pollute) to enter our ecosystem and we are 3 ……….. (danger) poisoning ourselves as a result. I think soil 4 ………. (erode) and water 5 ………..(contaminate) are two of the most urgent problems that we need to deal with.

2      Clearly our current lifestyle is not 6 ………..   (sustain). The government should educate people about these problems and encourage us to change our habits. They need to show everyone that we are putting the very future of our planet 7 ………..(risk).

3   We can make sure we don’t throw 8 ………. (recycle) items into our normal waste …………..(dispose) bins. We can also help protect our planet by not using phosphate-based detergents; this will help to keep 10………………………. (pollute) out of our food chain.

Đáp án:

  1. (being threatened by also possible)
  2. pollution
  3. in danger of
  4. erosion
  5. containation
  6. sustainable
  7. at risk
  8. recyclable
  9. disposal
  10. pollutants

4.2   Complete the sentences using the negative form of the words in brackets.

1              It is …………. ( realistic) to expect everyone to change their buying habits overnight.

2              When it comes to protecting the environment, cost should be ………………………….. (relevant)

3              It is ………..(reasonable) for rich countries to expect developing countries to reduce carbon emissions immediately.

4              People who dump chemical waste into our waterways are very………………….(responsible).

s              The oil spill has caused ………..(repairable) damage to several marine species.

6              Scientists believe that the damage to this area is               ………………….(reversible) .

7              These species are ………..(replaceable) . Once they are lost our ecosystem will be changed.

8              It is a mistake to think that increased consumerism and environmental damage are ………..(related).

Đáp án:

  1. unrealistic
  2. irrelevant
  3. unreasonable
  4. irresponsible
  5. irreparable
  6. irreversible
  7. irreplaceable
  8. unrelated

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